Åtte praksiser som undergraver skapelsen av levende nabolag

Naturen planlegger intet, den folder seg ut, den utfolder seg. Det er derfor jeg tar avstand fra kreasjonistene, fordi de reduserer skaperverket til en plan og Gud til den store planleggeren, som om Gud var en kopi av Le Corbusier.

Av Øyvind Holmstad, redaktør av bloggen Naturkonservativ

Selvorganisering følger livets kode, DNAets kode, hvilket vil si en utfoldelse av skapelsen gjennom sekvenser. For å skape helhet er det avgjørende at disse sekvensene utfolder seg i riktig rekkefølge, Christopher Alexander kaller dette for generative koder. Derfor er selvorganisering det motsatte av kaos, men naturens orden.

I artikkelen “GENERATIVE CODES HAVE EVOLVED FROM PATTERN LANGUAGES, BUT ARE MUCH MORE SOPHISTICATED GENERATING SYSTEMS“, identifiserer Alexander åtte ødeleggende arbeidsmetoder. Siden jeg leste disse første gang har det tynget meg at vi bygger samfunnet vårt gjennom degenerative sekvenser, og på dette viset kveler utfoldelsen av livet.

 

De følgende eksemplene er alle skadelige:

  • Konvensjonelt: Veier bygges før bygningene de skal betjene.
  • Konvensjonelt: I byggefelt graves ned vann- og avløpsrør lenge før husene oppføres.
  • Konvensjonelt: Husene plasseres, og hagen, som er det som blir igjen av tomta, er andreprioritet.
  • Konvensjonelt: Vinduenes design og posisjon bestemmes på det tidspunktet byggeplanene godkjennes.
  • Konvensjonelt: Tegningene fullføres før konstruksjonsarbeidet tar til.
  • Konvensjonelt: Planene for nabolaget fullføres før konstruksjonsarbeidet tar til.
  • Konvensjonelt: Offentlige plasser designes i etterkant av individuelle bygninger.
  • Konvensjonelt: Endringer gjøres gjennom endringsordrer, og blir derfor svært kostbare.

Disse praksisene støtter ikke opp under skapelsen av levende nabolag!

Hvorfor fortsetter vi med disse statiske, rigide og degenererende kodene ti år etter utgivelsen av The Nature of Order? Jeg har ikke selv lest bind to i dette bokverket, The Process of Creating Life, som omhandler generative koder, og vil derfor på ingen måte utpeke meg til noen autoritet på feltet. Allikevel, vi må som samfunn skifte fokus, fra å være planfokuserte til å bli sekvensfokuserte.

Våre dagers planleggingsregime bygger på modernistisk ideologi, og ble utviklet før kunnskapen om DNAet ble funnet. Skal vi kunne skape en sivilisasjon som er en del av naturen, må vi følge livets kode.

I boka Twelve Lectures on Architecture; Algorithmic Sustainable Design, sammenligner matematikeren Nikos A. Salingaros denne designmetoden med algoritmer, en stegvis prosess hvor det er algoritmen, ikke den overordnede planen, som leder oss til målet. Det endelige designet er således ukjent helt til siste slutt, men den algoritmiske prosessen vil lede oss til svaret. Eller rettere sagt, ett av flere mulige positive utfall. På samme vis som intet menneskebarn utvikler seg likt, men hvert individ får sin egen karakter. Slik må det også være for våre nabolag.

De åtte arbeidsmetodene som er listet ovenfor har ingenting med en stegvis algoritmisk prosess å gjøre, hvor man på forhånd bestemmer svaret uten å gjennomføre algoritmen.

Generative koder virker gjennom morfogenese eller lokal adapsjon. Levende nabolag er derfor først og fremst kjennetegnet av stor variasjon, som en respons på stedets særtrekk og egenart. Denne variasjonen reflekterer de 15 transformasjonene for helhet, den er egofri, og slik den diametrale motsetningen til dagens stjernearkitektur.

Judo Hall, Eishin Campus, Tokyo

Min inderlige bønn er at alle med påvirkningskraft, det være seg som håndverker, entreprenør, arkitekt, ingeniør eller byråkrat i stat og kommune, tar disse punktene Alexander har listet opp på alvor, og at dere gjør alt i deres makt for å få en slutt på disse praksisene. Gammel vane er riktignok vond å vende, men det er våre nabolag og med dette vår og våre barns fremtid som står på spill.

Vi kan holde så mange konferanser vi vil, holde tusenvis av vakre og velmente taler, men uten at vi eliminerer disse åtte degenerative sekvensene vil alle velmente initiativ og intensjoner være fåfengt. Ugresset må rives opp med rota skal vi få bukt med det, skal vi kunne bygge genuint levende nabolag fulle av lokal identitet og tilhørighet.

La oss brenne alle store planer på bålet og erstatte dem med generative koder, med livets teknologi. La oss skape levende nabolag for framtida!

 

Relatert

Livets teknologi – ei innleiing

Å skape byggverk som er på parti med livet

Tre velmente råd for de nye natursamfunnene

Dei tre skapingstilstandane

Den økologiske estetikken (Bokmelding av Morten Skrivers ”Skønhedens befrielse”)

Seksti år med kjøpesentret

Ser vi Guds finger i Kvartal 42, Kristiansand?

  • “I do not, directly, blame all the architects who have made these buildings in so many places on earth. I believe it is inappropriate to feel anger towards them… Rather, I believe that we must acknowledge that the architects (often our own colleagues) who drew these buildings, and then had them built by methods and processes far from their control, deserve our sympathy for being placed in an impossible position. What has caused the new tradition of structure-destroying forms of this era, are mainly the machine-like processes of planning, conceiving, budgeting, developing, construction contracting, construction labor, and so forth. The architects who fully accepted the modern machine have hardly been more than pawns in the game which is much larger than they are.” – Christopher Alexander

  • Litt mer om generativ teori for arkitekturen.

    – The Generative Theory of Architecture:

    “Everything on this website is based on a theory of generative processes. The theory says that we can only hope to build a living world, by using generative or “genetic” means. This is an entirely new view of architecture. It says that the living environment can be created ONLY by the action of millions of people, all using a common genetic scheme, which generates the form and content of buildings in a fashion very similar to the way that genetic material or DNA generates the form of organisms.

    It is our intent to provide this genetic material, through the medium of this website, in the hope that the website, then, by being useful to millions of people, will help us all—together—to generate a living world, with buildings, streets, rooms, neighborhoods that we can inhabit with hope.”

    http://www.patternlanguage.com/labyrinth/gentheory.html

    – An Introduction to On-line Design:

    “The essence of all the material on this website, and our hope that we may be able to influence landscape, cities, neighborhoods, buildings, building structure, gardens, rooms, and details, all over the world, hinges on the idea of a generative sequence.

    A generative sequence may be thought of as a second generation pattern language.

    In A Pattern Language, published in 1977, the emphasis is on the patterns themselves…that is, on the content of the patterns. Although we intended that the pattern language would be generative, that is, would allow people to generate buildings and building designs, for themselves—truthfully, this does not happen. The patterns provide many profound ideas, and geometrical “nuggets”: which are needed to make the environment work.

    But, as written in 1977, they do not actually allow a person to generate a good design, step by step. The do not place the emphasis on morphological unfolding, as they should.

    Yet in traditional society, the pattern languages which people had did place the emphasis on morphological unfolding. With the help of the generative sequences (or languages) that people had from their culture, they were able to make beautiful and useful things, almost without thinking, because the creative power lay in the generative structure of the language—and that lay in the sequence in which the steps were to be performed.

    The essence of the sequences which we shall introduce on this website, is that they give people power, to make beautiful and workable designs. You do not need to scratch you head. You just need to use the sequence in the right order, and you will get good results.

    This will have two big effects on the design of buildings:

    An architect who uses such a sequence, can do better and more beautiful work.

    A lay person can make a design, at least in a simple form, where previously it was assumed that only architects and engineers could make designs.”

    http://www.patternlanguage.com/labyrinth/sequenceopener.html

    – Uniqueness of Generative Sequences:

    “For a person who has not thought very much about it, the idea of a generative sequence might seem

    Obvious

    Not very interesting

    After all, every recipe is a sequence of steps. Is a generative sequence anything more than a series of steps like a recipe for cake or omelets.

    It is.

    There is one essential ingredient to the sequences, which is perhaps their most salient feature, and which is also the feature that makes them work, and which forms the foundation of the described methodology.

    A sequence works, or does not work, according to the order of the steps in the sequence. Some sequences allow unfolding, others do not allow it. For a given task, the number of possible sequences is huge compared with the number of sequences which work, that is by comparison, tiny. For example, if we have 24 steps, for generating a Japanese teahouse. There are 24! (approximately 1023) different possible sequences of 24 items, billions upon billions. The number of successful sequences, or sequences which “work” for the same 24 items is very limited a few thousand at the most, which are all essentially variants of the same underlying sequence. In short, there are less than .00000001 percent of all possible sequences, which work.

    It is not possible, at present, to give a precisely defined way of identifying the sequences which work. That is to say, we do not yet know a mathematical procedure which can identify the sequences which work. However, the sequences which work can be identified , experimentally, by a fairly well defined procedure. If one applies a sequence of steps to a given context, and if one then observes the unfolding process, it is possible to ascertain, unambiguously, whether the process engendered by this sequence at any time contradicts itself. That means, we ask whether one is forced to backtrack, because step B which comes at a certain point in the sequences forces one to undo the results of a previously taken step A.

    In this way, by doing experiments on test cases, it is possible to winnow out or correct sequences, and essentially to eliminate all the bad ones, thus gradually finding ones way to the good sequences, which have the property that no such backtracking occurs as a project unfolds.

    This property of being backtrack-free is the essence of what makes a successful sequence.

    It is very important to note that, for a given set of steps, such a backtrack-free sequence is stable. Once discovered, the property of being backtrack-free stays, and it is true for all contexts. Thus the backtrack-free sequences are the essence of the theory of unfolding. Since the identification of backtrack-free sequences can be made, experimentally, the property is objective and is unambiguously defined by experiment (even though difficult to find, experimentally).

    The described methodology incorporates the idea that such backtrack-free sequences exist, and includes all the particular realizations of backtrack-free sequences for providing widespread user participation in the planning design and construction of the built environment. The sequences can be made available within the context of a business model that uses the internet for wide dissemination and a combination of sequences, together with word based questions and probes which bring user input into the end product with a supporting imaging and design tool software. The generative sequences can be combined with online tools which make it possible for the user to create the design dynamically, step-by-step.

    The business model can also provide for ancillary project management, and access to local professionals who provide help, management, craft and construction for a community, company or individual who has used the sequences to lay out their own design.

    This approach and business method is fundamentally different from previous attempts to plan, design and construct buildings. The present methodology provides for user participation in the planning design and construction of the built environment in a manner which allows the organic growth of a design through a sequence of generative steps.

    Continue on to use Sequences to help you build your project: http://www.patternlanguage.com/sequences/sequences.html

    http://www.patternlanguage.com/labyrinth/uniqueness.html

  • Her er en meget bra oversikt over “The Nature of Order” som jeg nettopp republiserte hos P2P-Foundation: http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/empirical-findings-from-the-nature-of-order/2014/04/15

    Særlig satte jeg pris på punkt 33:

    “By honoring the wholeness of the Earth and its neighborhoods, these newly built places, in their physical character and presence, are also likely to encourage and support new depths of spiritual seriousness in the people who make them and for whom they are made.”

    For å kunne fungere som biologiske og spirituelle skapninger er vi avhengige av at våre omgivelser er organiske og skapt gjennom organiske eller generative prosesser. Som Alexander slår fast i oversikten, det er kun gjennom generative prosesser de 15 transformasjonene for helhet kan manifisteres, og det er kun gjennom disse vi kan skape helhet. I omgivelser skapt gjennom mekaniske prosesser reduseres vi til mekaniske mennesker, hvor livet mister sin verdi.

    WE ARE TRYING TO DO WHAT WE CAN, IN OUR LIMITED WAY, TO HELP ALL PEOPLE ON EARTH BECOME FREE

    WE ARE TRYING TO FIGHT AGAINST THE ENSLAVEMENT OF PEOPLE BY MONEY, BY POWER, AND BY BUILDINGS AND BY DEADLY LANDSCAPES AND CITY NEIGHBORHOODS

    IT WILL TAKE ALL OUR ENERGY TO FIND WAYS OF REPLACING DEAD CITIES AND ENVIRONMENTS, WITH THOSE IN WHICH WE CAN MORE EASILY BE FREE

    HUMAN FREEDOM IS NOT ONLY IN OUR MINDS: IT IS A STATE OF GRACE, NATURAL TO US, BUT TOO OFTEN PREVENTED BY THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH WE LIVE

    THIS IS OUR FIGHT TO GIVE BACK THE WORLD TO ITS PEOPLE: YOU AND ME

    CHRISTOPHER ALEXANDER